碳阻迹
2021-11 13
View 186
"At COP26, Parties Built a Bridge" - Patricia Espinosa

Date:2021-11

View:13

Patricia Espinosa, COP26 closing plenary Credit: Kiara Worth Excellencies; Dear Ministers, Dear Colleagues, Thank you to everyone who attended, participated in, organized or followed COP26 online. Thank you for your passionate dedication to the issue of climate change. Negotiations are never easy and while we seek an outcome that is acceptable to all, few return home completely satisfied. But this is the nature of consensus and inclusive multilateralism. Thank you to the UK Presidency for hosting COP26. I would especially like to thank Minister Sharma for his leadership and partnership during these months of hard work and especially during these last two weeks. I also thank all who are part of the UK Presidency team, from mobilization and operations to those working shifts throughout the night to keep the agenda moving forward. It has been a unique COP, given everything we’ve gone through, and you have all risen to the challenge. And thank you to the people of Glasgow for their warmth and graciousness and for opening the doors to this beautiful city -- the focus of the world’s attention these last two weeks. One hears many things at a COP. Here is what I heard most: “the people here are so nice.” It truly warmed our hearts. Finally, I would like to thank everyone at UN Climate Change for their incredible dedication, passion and support for COP26. This has been a very unique COP. Regardless of the multiple challenges every one of you have faced, you have shown your exceptional professionalism and dedication. Dear friends, Two weeks ago, I said in my opening remarks that success at COP26 was possible. I said it would be defined not by one or two “big” announcements, but whether we achieved a balanced package of decisions and actions. We started our work with a clear recognition that we are facing a climate crisis and, at the same time, that there are critical gaps in terms of mitigation, adaptation and finance. I believe that the recognition of the relevance and the urgency of the task ahead has allowed many of you to support the consensus, even if it did not completely address all your concerns. I thank you. We will be leaving Glasgow with clarity on the work we need to undertake to reach the 1.5-degree goal. Parties have made progress in several key areas. I want to highlight four accomplishments that represent significant progress in the world’s efforts against climate change. At this COP, adaptation has been central in all our conversations, and the texts adopted recognize this relevance. We now also have a work program to define the global goal on adaptation. This will allow us to identify the collective needs and solutions for the climate impacts already happening now in all regions of the world. And the Santiago Network, which provides technical support for countries to address and manage loss and damage, has now been enhanced, strengthening global efforts towards resilience. Regarding finance, an issue extensively discussed here at COP26, all Parties agree that much more support needs to be provided to developing counties. In particular, Parties have also recognized that the most vulnerable cannot be ignored, that much more finance for adaptation is needed and it has to be predictable. We welcome the call to at least double finance for adaptation. We know the needs are still very much beyond what is currently available, and Parties must continue to focus on this issue. We are disappointed the $100 billion pledge remains outstanding and I call upon all donors to make it a reality as by next year. And we all know that this is not only about the $100 billion. Initiating the process for the definition of the new global goal on finance as soon as possible is therefore critical. We came into COP26 knowing we had a significant emissions gap. To address it, Parties have collectively agreed to look for ways to increase actions with the overall objective of closing that gap. There can be no doubting the urgency of this task. This is a question of the long-term survival of humanity on this planet. COP26 also sees the finalization of guidelines for the full implementation of the Paris Agreement. This is a significant accomplishment. After six years of intense negotiations, we have reached a compromise on the pending issue of Article Six. Operationalizing Article Six will allow Parties to scale up their cooperation, mobilize additional finance and private sector engagement and ensure that the rules are the same for everyone. We also finalized the negotiations on the Enhanced Transparency Framework. This will allow all Parties to continue building trust. Dear friends; At COP26, Parties built a bridge between good intentions and measurable actions to lower emissions, increase resilience and provide much needed finance. A bridge leading to the historic transformation we must make to achieve rapid reductions this decade and ultimately towards the 1.5C goal. A bridge between the admirable promises made six years ago in Paris to the concrete measures that the scientific evidence calls for and societies around the world demand. This was clear outside the formal process as well. We heard pledges to protect forests, oceans, land and nature. We heard more pledges for adaptation, more action in the health care sector. We’ve heard promises for greater inclusion of Indigenous, regional and local communities. We heard from the activists who marched in peace and plead for you to listen to their cries for climate leadership. We heard from women, from youth, from cities, from regions, from businesses large and small, from academics, scientists and countless others. Experience in this process also shows that promises -- especially financial ones -- are easily made, but difficult to deliver. For every announcement made, we look forward to both firm plans and the fine print. Dear Friends, The road to climate action does not end in Glasgow. Despite your accomplishments, we are still far off the trajectory of stabilizing global temperature rise at 1.5-degrees. It’s imperative we see more climate action this decade to achieve it. The emissions gap remains a serious threat, as do the gaps in finance and adaptation. NDCs must be significantly boosted. As the Secretary General said: every country, city, company and financial institution must credibly and verifiably reduce their emissions and decarbonize their portfolios starting now. We must continue to work together to achieve it. Thousands of non-governmental observers have come to this conference. All have a voice. These participants were, are and will continue to be more than a source of inspiration, they are a source of solutions. I call upon Parties to make a greater commitment to include Observers in our process moving forward. I have already made a commitment to them to review what happened here in Glasgow to ensure greater inclusivity moving forward. That work begins immediately. Dear Friends, Some of the oldest and most magnificent bridges in the world can be found here in Scotland. It is therefore fitting that the bridge to historic transformation we must achieve has been built here in Glasgow. But bridges are meant to be crossed and cross we must. The waters of the climate emergency are rising rapidly. We must continue to fight for that hope. And while hope will light our way forward, we will remain vigilant that promises pledged are promises kept, that the billions looking to you have their hopes reflected in your decisions. I once again thank all of you for making COP26 a success and for working so hard. Let us enjoy what we have accomplished but let us also prepare for the next chapter of our journey together. Thank you. Source:UN Author:UN Date:November 13, 2021

2021-11 13
View 178
Secretary-General's Statement on the Conclusion of the UN Climate Change Conference COP26

Date:2021-11

View:13

Let me begin by thanking our hosts —the UK government and the people of Glasgow — for their tremendous hospitality.  I salute Alok Sharma and his team.  This was an extremely challenging conference. They have shown remarkable expertise in reaching consensus among parties.  I am grateful to Patricia Espinosa and all my colleagues of the United Nations Climate Change team. And I express my gratitude to all delegates — and all those on the outside who have put pressure on this COP to deliver. The approved texts are a compromise. They reflect the interests, the conditions, the contradictions and the state of political will in the world today.   They take important steps, but unfortunately the collective political will was not enough to overcome some deep contradictions. As I said at the opening, we must accelerate action to keep the 1.5 degree goal alive. Our fragile planet is hanging by a thread.   We are still knocking on the door of climate catastrophe.   It is time to go into emergency mode — or our chance of reaching net zero will itself be zero. I reaffirm my conviction that we must end fossil fuels subsidies.   Phase out coal.   Put a price on carbon.  Build resilience of vulnerable communities against the here and now impacts of climate change.   And make good on the $100 billion climate finance commitment to support developing countries.  We did not achieve these goals at this conference. But we have some building blocks for progress.  Commitments to end deforestation. To drastically reduce methane emissions. To mobilize private finance around net zero.   And the texts today reaffirm resolve towards the 1.5 degree goal. Boost climate finance for adaptation. Recognize the need to strengthen support for vulnerable countries suffering from irreparable climate damage.   And for the first time they encourage International Financial Institutions to consider climate vulnerabilities in concessional financial and other forms of support, including Special Drawing Rights. And finally close the Paris rule book with agreement on carbon markets and transparency.   These are welcome steps, but they are not enough.   Science tells us that the absolute priority must be rapid, deep and sustained emissions reductions in this decade. Specifically — a 45% cut by 2030 compared to 2010 levels.   But the present set of Nationally Determined Contributions -- even if fully implemented -- will still increase emissions this decade on a pathway that will clearly lead us to well above 2 degrees by the end of the century compared to pre-industrial levels. I welcome the agreement between US and China here in Glasgow that — like the text today — pledges to accelerate action to reduce emissions in the 2020s. To help lower emissions in many other emerging economies, we need to build coalitions of support including developed countries, financial institutions, those with the technical know-how. This is crucial to help each of those emerging countries speed the transition from coal and accelerate the greening of their economies.    The partnership with South Africa announced a few days ago is a model for doing just that.  I want to make a particular appeal for our future work in relation to adaptation and the issue of loss and damage. Adaptation isn’t a technocratic issue, it is life or death. I was once Prime Minister of my country. And I imagine myself today in the shoes of a leader from a vulnerable country.   COVID-19 vaccines are scarce. My economy is sinking. Debt is mounting.  International resources for recovery are completely insufficient.   Meanwhile, although we contributed least to the climate crisis, we suffer most.    And when yet another hurricane devastates my country, the treasury is empty.   Protecting countries from climate disaster is not charity.  It is solidarity and enlightened self-interest.   We have another climate crisis today. A climate of mistrust is enveloping our globe.  Climate action can help rebuild trust and restore credibility.   That means finally delivering on the $100 billion climate finance commitment to developing countries.  No more IOUs. It means measuring progress, updating climate plans every year and raising ambition. I will convene a global stock-taking summit at the heads of state level in 2023.   And it means – beyond the mechanisms already set out in the Paris Agreement –  establishing clear standards to measure and analyze net zero commitments from non-state actors.   I will create a High-Level Expert Group with that objective. Finally, I want to close with a message of hope and resolve to young people, indigenous communities, women leaders, all those leading the climate action army.  I know many of you are disappointed.   Success or failure is not an act of nature. It’s in our hands.  The path of progress is not always a straight line. Sometimes there are detours. Sometimes there are ditches. As the great Scottish writer Robert Louis Stevenson said: “Don’t judge each day by the harvest you reap, but by the seeds that you plant.”  We have many more seeds to plant along the path.   We won’t reach our destination in one day or one conference. But I know we can get there. We are in the fight of our lives.  Never give up. Never retreat. Keep pushing forward.  I will be with you all the way.  COP 27 starts now.  Source:UN Author:UN Date:November 13, 2021

2021-11 12
View 177
COP26 Sees Significant Progress on Issues Related to Agriculture

Date:2021-11

View:12

Credit: Joe Saade / UN Women UN Climate Change News, 12 November 2021 – Significant progress has been made at COP26 in both reducing the impact of climate change on the agriculture sector and lowering the sector’s contribution to global warming. Climate change induced increases in temperatures, rainfall variation and the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events are adding to pressures on global agricultural and food systems. The changing climate is also adding to resource problems, such as water scarcity and soil degradation. While agriculture is a victim of climate change, it also contributes to it. The main direct agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are nitrous oxide emissions from soils, fertilisers and manure from grazing animals; and methane production by ruminant animals and from paddy rice cultivation. Both gases have a significantly higher global warming potential than carbon dioxide. Against the background of these impacts, a breakthrough decision was made at COP23 in 2017 with the adoption of the ‘Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture’ (KJWA) which provides a road map to address issues related to agriculture in a holistic manner through a series of international workshops on the topic. AT COP26, governments considered the outcomes of the last three workshops of the Koronivia road map, which saw input from global experts, international organizations and financing entities, and found significant agreement on all three topics under consideration. Gustavo Mozzer from the Brazilian delegation underlined the significance of the work achieved: “Brazil welcomes the outcome attained in the KJWA process and congratulates Parties and the secretariat for their efforts. The KJWA process is strategic to highlight the particular vulnerability of agriculture to the impacts of climate change and the need to catalyze efforts to strengthen cooperation for scientific development and action on behalf of food security." Herwig Ranner, speaking on behalf of the European Union (EU) said: “The EU welcomes the positive outcome of the Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture. It acknowledges the need for a transition towards sustainable and climate-resilient food systems, taking into consideration food security and ending hunger throughout the globe, as well as to achieve climate objectives such as emission reductions.” At COP26, governments recognized that soil and nutrient management practices and the optimal use of nutrients lie at the core of climate-resilient, sustainable food production systems and can contribute to global food security. It was also recognized that while livestock management systems are vulnerable to climate change, improving sustainable production and animal health can contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions while enhancing sinks on pasture and grazing lands. Governments agreed on the need to continue working on Agriculture under the UNFCCC process with a view to adopting a decision at COP 27 in 2022. They recognized that the Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture has an impact on financing entities and can help to better align international organizations and processes in their work on agriculture and climate change. Furthermore, there was acknowledgement of how the working mode of the KJWA promotes inclusivity through knowledge sharing between decisions makers, farmers, indigenous peoples, women and youth. Source:UN Author:UN Date:November 12, 2021

2021-11 11
View 170
Countries 'Walk the Talk' on Transparency and Climate Action

Date:2021-11

View:11

Solar cooking in Bhutan Credit: Chris de Bode / Panos UN Climate Change News, 11 November 2021 – At COP26 in Glasgow, 17 countries shared updates on climate action over the two day- Multilateral Assessment (MA) and Facilitative Sharing of Views (FSV) events.   Seven developing countries participated in the FSV workshop, the final stage of the International Consultation Analysis (ICA) process. At the workshop, Parties shared their experiences on the implementation of the domestic MRV arrangements and national efforts to establish or enhance them. Countries showcased their mitigation actions in the energy sector by shifting to renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and hydro power. Several countries highlighted the sustainable forest management activities they are undertaking, such as implementing REDD+, to contribute to reducing emissions from the forest and land use sector. It was also an opportunity to inform the international community of the support required in transitioning to the Enhanced Transparency Framework (ETF) under the Paris Agreement. In a similar process, ten developed countries underwent MA, the final stage of the International Assessment and Review (IAR) process. As part of this, each country presented an overview of their key climate actions and answered clarifying questions from other countries both in advance of and at the session.  In the first ever joint FSV/MA closing, UNFCCC Executive Secretary Patricia Espinosa praised countries for not only showing leadership, transparency and openness, but also for keeping the process moving forward over the past year.  Noting that IAR and ICA processes form the basis of the Paris Agreement’s Enhanced Transparency Framework, Espinosa commented, “By highlighting progress made and identifying where further efforts are needed, these platforms help to build trust among countries and encourage further action.” Facilitative Sharing of Views Seven developing countries participated in the 11th workshop of the FSV. Cambodia, Dominican Republic, Lao PDR, Oman and Tajikistan presented their first Biennial Update Report (BUR), while Uruguay and India presented their third reports.   Developing countries pointed out common issues of vulnerability from climate change impacts. The major sources of GHG emissions in Uruguay, Cambodia, Lao PDR and Tajikistan are the agriculture and land use sectors, while, for the Dominican Republic, Oman and India the largest emitting sector is the energy sector. Promoting renewable energy is among the main mitigation actions for the participating countries. Managing forests sustainably, reducing deforestation and forest degradation and increasing agricultural sustainability were also highlighted by Lao PDR, Uruguay, Cambodia and India.  The countries under FSV also shared information on the financial and technical support they have received for reporting, leveraging policies, and supporting their mitigation actions. Ongoing needs for additional finance and capacity-building were also presented. The seven Parties also noted their commitment to transition towards the enhanced transparency framework.  In addition, Oman and Tajikistan provided detailed information on the institutional arrangements relevant to the preparation of their first biennial transparency report. Highlights of the presentations and discussions with all seven participating Parties are available here. Multilateral Assessment Ten developed country Parties underwent MA at COP26: Kazakhstan, Croatia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and the United Kingdom. Several countries stressed the need to reduce energy-related emissions – especially in the transport sector –  while simultaneously boosting energy independence.  Luxembourg focused on expanding public transport and e-mobility and decarbonizing freight transport; Monaco noted the benefits of expanding dedicated public transport lanes; and Liechtenstein, Poland and Romania described efforts to increase solar energy production - for example, through Romania’s Green House Programme which supports the installation of solar energy generation feeding into the public network, and Poland’s micro-solar “My Power Priority” programme. Moreover, Parties such as Iceland promoted their collaboration with technology innovator CarbFix to develop carbon capture and mineralization and direct-air carbon capture facilities, while the UK spoke about speeding the transition of homes and workplaces to low-carbon heating technologies with heat pumps and finding ways to harness the ambition of the private sector. On adapting to climate change impacts, both Croatia and Kazakhstan described the adoption of National Adaptation Plans, while the UK announced the publication of its first Adaptation Communication.  In addition, Slovenia showcased its Climate Mirror, an annual publication aimed at tracking the implementation of measures to address climate change. For a more extensive list of Parties’ new, innovative and most effective policies and measures to address climate change as highlighted during the sessions, please see here. In the joint closing session, the SBI Chair reflected on the many positive statements from Parties on the ICA and IAR processes: “We heard that expert review teams bring valuable international experience to the Parties they assess, and that national experts benefit from participating in these processes, gaining capacity and skills to participate in the reporting and review of other Parties.  We also heard that these processes can encourage Parties to better coordinate their work and report on their progress, and that the outcome of their efforts helps to raise awareness of governments to the importance of these processes under the UNFCCC.” Source:UN Author:UN Date:November 11, 2021

2021-11 11
View 177
New Funding Announced for Climate Action in Cities

Date:2021-11

View:11

COP President Daily Media Statement and Latest Announcements - 11 November  List of announcements: Cities, Regions and Built Environment Day, 11 November The UK today pledged £27.5m of new funding for the new Urban Climate Action Programme (UCAP) to support cities targeting net zero. The programme, funded through International Climate Finance, will support cities across Africa, Asia and Latin America to take climate action and create a sustainable future, by helping them implement innovative climate action plans to become carbon neutral by 2050 and prepare low-carbon infrastructure projects to reduce emissions.    UCAP will help cities to implement projects like low-emission public transport systems, renewable energy generation, sustainable waste management, new climate-smart buildings codes and climate risk planning. By showcasing what is possible, city and regional authorities can demonstrate to other cities and national governments the opportunities available to drive action.   The programme will be delivered in partnership with the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, a global network of cities focused on climate action, and GIZ, the German development agency.   UCAP will build on the flagship Climate Leadership in Cities programme, which successfully supported megacities in Latin America and Asia to develop ambitious climate action plans consistent with the Paris Agreement; including developing pathways to net zero by 2050 and committing to ambitious interim targets by 2030 to keep 1.5 degrees within reach. Source:UN Author:UN Date:November 11, 2021